Any system “shall measure in an objective, accurate, and timely manner.”4 The verb of choice in this sliver of code is “measure,” trotted out no fewer than seven times over two paragraphs. The audit’s resultant report was, on the whole, positive. According to The Army Strategy, the Army projects that it will reach its readiness goals by 2022, at which point its priority is expected to shift to modernization. endstream endobj 1636 0 obj <. Fortunately, organizational theory bypasses these obstacles convincingly. The time burden shrinks as reporting grows less frequent. To do so, they wrote that leaders must appreciate that “developing competence, establishing mutual trust, and learning to operate from shared understanding does not start in the field. It provides policies and procedures for private organizations operation on Department of the Army installations. Some units go even further to avoid an unbecoming R-level, displacing maintenance (and therefore readiness) in the process. 2. Military Operations . AR 210-22, Private Organizations on Department of the Army Installations [6/8/2005] This Army Regulation replaces AR 210-1, which was rescinded in 1998. This regulation applies to all directorates, special staff sections, major subordinate commands, tenants, and Lastly, least measurable (and therefore, from a metric-intensive perspective, least credible) but just as tragic is what Muller calls the degradation of the work. This signals strongly to me that these issues are unfortunately not limited to a single formation. This regulation provides information on medical deployment determinations and in-dividual medical readiness elements. Check it out. The denominator for equipment on-hand is what the Army has decided that a reporting unit must have, recorded in what is formally known as the modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE). The purpose of recovery becomes to report it complete, and all the while, units grow weaker. The issue is that pacer OR rates are poor indicators of readiness and not just because serviceability rates lend themselves to manipulation. This sanitized approach obfuscates the manipulation that can and does occur to ensure these basic fractions yield figures between .9 and 1.00. 2. * Establishes the family readiness group as an official Army program, established in accordance with AR 600-20, to provide activities and support that encourages self … To close this gap, a regular (perhaps biennial) reassessment that solicits division or even brigade input regarding what ought to be considered a pacer would make pacer OR rates more meaningful. Implied in the hyperquantification and rigidity of the USR is an organizational distrust of the reporting unit, and therefore the soldiers who constitute it. The U.S. Army has rewritten Field Manual 7-22, Physical Readiness Training as FM 7-22, Holistic Health and Fitness (H2F). These monthly campaigns see much-needed equipment transferred off the property books while supply teams bloat books with obsolete or unused equipment in order to meet MTOE quotas. The impetus to explore the USR’s shortcomings comes from my experience working twenty-four months as a troop executive officer. Units do so both because of the quick turnaround (one need not wait for a part to arrive from a distant depot if one rips a part off of a neighboring truck), and also because if the maintenance section need not order the part, it need not report the truck as broken, which would spare the USR. He holds a BS from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Less frequent reports would reduce the pressure on leaders to prioritize readiness metrics over deliberate training progressions. As units and their commanders acquire more influence over what the Army deems essential, they may functionally invent mission essential tasks to warrant desired widgets, bringing at times anomalous personal experience in contest with doctrine. : Army Readiness Guidance; Subscribe to STAND-TO! Company Leaders’ Estimates of Personal Time Devoted Per Quarter to Job Tasks (Figure from RAND Corporation, Reducing the Time Burdens on Army Company Leaders, 2019, https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR2900/RR2979/RAND_RR2979.pdf) In his previous assignment, he completed a tour in Germany, during which he served twenty-four months as a troop executive officer with 1st Squadron, 91st Cavalry Regiment, 173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne). It comprises four measured areas: personnel (the P-level), equipment on-hand (the S-level), equipment readiness (the R-level), and the unit training proficiency (the T-level) (see figure 1 and figure 2). As the organization solicits input and metrics of performance acquires meaning, work regains its esteem and morale increases. Staffs will in turn direct battalions to give away needed equipment that will soon be on their MTOE simply because in that month the item is technically excess. Untested methods, whether a change to motor pool management or an alternate approach to equipment distribution, enjoy a slim chance of fruition as they threaten USR calculus month to month. readiness in accordance with the requirements stipulated in Army Regulation (AR) 220-1 (Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration - Consolidated Policies), and the Leader’s Guide to Objective Assessment of Training Proficiency.17 The Army G-3/5/7 published the Leader's Guide in 2017 as the interim authority for CUSR Objective T- Leaders can increase readiness by talking about the connection of sleep, activity, and nutrition to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. This adverse effect of metric fixation runs precisely contrary to the stated 2018 National Defense Strategy, which emphasizes a pivot toward long-term readiness.15. § 117(a)(1)–(3) (2011), accessed 3 June 2020, U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), “GAO Highlights,” in, Robert K. Merton, “Bureaucratic Structure and Personality,”, W. Keith Warner and A. Eugene Havens, “Goal Displacement and the Intangibility of Organizational Goals,”. Army mobilization is the process of bringing the Army to a state of readiness for war, contingency, or national emergency. It establishes procedures for conducting a Soldier Readiness Program (S RP), in order to process soldiers and Department of the Army civilians for deployments/movements under the SRP. SFRG Regulations. The goal of reporting a healthy pacer OR rate has displaced the goal of being ready. Soldiers must inspect equipment, mechanics troubleshoot it, and clerks order repairs. Related to goal displacement is short-termism. The accessibility of hard numbers and their simplicity render the military’s sprawling bureaucracy manageable. But to understand the scope of the harm, one must first understand the desired end (in this case, readiness) and the metrics used to measure it—the USR and its components. A cannibalized high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) sits next to other HMMWVs awaiting repair. A less frequent USR disrupts long-term planning less frequently. Its metric fixation asphyxiates several of mission command’s core tenets: disciplined initiative, risk acceptance, mutual trust, and shared understanding. The reports do so because they demand inflexible quantitative measurements unfaithful to the outcome they purport to depict—how ready a unit is to accomplish its mission. Though there is much to be said for earning one’s place, ideas expire with time, and many exit the profession of arms before entering positions of influence in search of a more enterprising culture. As George Kennan wrote in 1958 when discussing the expanding administrative state and its managerial malaise, The premium of the individual employee will continue to lie not in boldness, not in individuality, not in imagination, but rather in the cultivation of that nice mixture of noncontroversialness and colorless semicompetence that corresponds most aptly to the various banal distinctions of which, alone, the business machine is capable.21. The commanders and staff chase readiness as the USR measures it, often at the cost of actual readiness. Yet another painful example of goal displacement induced by USR involves what regulation calls “pacing items.” AR 220-1 defines pacing items (colloquially called “pacers”) as “major weapon systems, aircraft, and other equipment items that are central to the organization’s ability to perform its designated mission.”13 A pacer for a medical unit might be a field litter ambulance; for a cavalry squadron, it might be its anti-tank missile systems and the vehicles on which they are mounted. It also enjoys a vociferous booster in the Government Accountability Office (GAO). This practice survives because few commanders command long enough to reckon with the fall out of this behavior. Commander’s Unit Status Report Metrics (Figure from Army Regulation 220-1, Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration—Consolidated Policies, 15 April 2010, https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/r220_1.pdf) The DRRS-A readiness data in turn comes from unit status reports (USR) provided by BCTs’ constituent battalions. But inevitably, well-meaning authors of MTOE at Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) as well as the approval authority at the Deputy Chief of Staff G-3/5/7 office either include too much or too few of any given item in view of the unit’s assigned mission. This approach enjoys the dual advantages of preempting the defensiveness Wong and Gerras encountered and more credibly promising results. Muller defines short-termism in The Tyranny of Metrics as “diverting resources away from their best long-term uses to achieve measured short-term goals.”14 And because USR reports recur for battalions monthly, they disrupt long-term strategies for the maintenance, acquisition, and retention of equipment in pursuit of a good monthly read. The Army would thus have to maintain a high but passable bar for what equipment supports only existing mission essential tasks. The frequency and high stakes of USRs demand of battalion and brigade staffs days of data compilation that might otherwise be spent planning training. Thus, command-and-control vehicles rust in the motor pool while twenty directionless anti-tank trucks roam the battlefield, but as far as the USR is concerned, the unit is combat ready. A first step toward this end would be to better incorporate the judgment of reporting leadership, those closest to the capabilities of their formations. The massive effort units expend to reach the highest levels of readiness on USRs would therefore more efficiently ready them. Journal of Military Learning Submission Guide, Future Warfare Writing Program Submission Guidelines, Military History Instruction Support Team, 290 Stimson Ave. But the price of that due diligence is at times one, if not several, unfavorable USRs, and units are too often unwilling to pay. A 2016 GAO report typifies its argument for hard numbers and the tongue-clicking that ensues when results are insufficiently quantified: “The services have not fully established metrics that the department can use to oversee readiness rebuilding efforts and evaluate progress toward achieving the identified goals.”5 Testimony from the GAO in February 2020 sustains this tone, lauding the Department of Defense’s progress as it develops “metrics to assess progress toward readiness recovery goals that include quantifiable deliverables at specific milestones [emphasis added].”6, In view of the above, Army Regulation (AR) 220-1, Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration—Consolidated Policies, endows the USR with an unsurprisingly quantitative structure. The ranking in each category is uniform and numeric: a level “1” (such as an R-1) indicates the highest readiness level in that measured area, and a “4” the lowest (such as R-4).7, Figure 1. United States Department of Army Family Morale Welfare and Recreation Command: Lynn McCollum, Director, Family Programs Kathy Quinn Ledbetter, Family Readiness Division Chief Peter Hepp, Social Science Program Specialist Contact Us | 913-684-2127. AR 525–30 Army Strategic Readiness This new Department of the Army regulation, dated 3 June 2014-- o Institutionalizes the fundamentals of Army Strategic Readiness (throughout). Self-righteous blame invites obstinate defense, and both are obstacles to productive discussion. The above temporal fixes reduce short-termism. Yes, the Army could use more low bed semitrailers, towed-howitzer telescopes, and electromagnetic spectrum managers. These materials were developed based on Army regulation and guidance, and research on separation and combat deployments. Examples are ubiquitous in the measured area of equipment readiness. Extending command timelines would force a consideration of long-term effects that are otherwise a problem for the anonymous successor. Even worse, units will not turn in irreparably broken equipment (a process known as “coding out”) for fear that the loss will drop them below the MTOE-prescribed quantity, opting to retain unserviceable property and thereby precluding the fielding or even requisition of a functioning replacement. Army OneSource is a single web portal providing important, credible and up-to-date information in one location for Army Soldiers and Family Members to access at any time of day, regardless of component or geographical location. Antiquated encryption tape readers remain while desperately needed high frequency radios or infrared optics disappear. Army Readiness Guidance 2016-2017; Army Regulation 525-30, Army Strategic Readiness; Related STAND-TO! The reform, not the scrapping, of reporting metrics and structure, promises a reduction in goal displacement, short-termism, innovation aversion, time burdens, and degradation of work. The Army Regulation that governs all Soldier and Family Readiness Group operations is Army Regulation 608-1, Appendix J. Applicability. åܛw眉?+¶œs.µƒ¡£¡ˆ: l&° ”àè #0)‚HÂccMý40A@åfbpH¿fàa`Ú¨3ÁrÚ'Ï-i ¡l÷ŸàÈáVÒ¹Á2@š‡Áñ*XœùªfX±'@€ Úlz Army Directive (AD) 2019-17, 1 April 2019. j. HQDA EXORD 233-19 Army-Wide Implementation of the Soldier and Family Readiness Group, 16 December 2019. The unfortunate truth of the report, and others like it, is that it substantiates its findings with data from the Department of Defense Readiness Reporting System-Army (DRRS-A). Short-termism similarly dominates the measured area of equipment on-hand. It is the work of real readiness. Reference memorandum, DAMO-0DR, 19 October 1987, SAB. In view of the above, Army Regulation (AR) 220-1, Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration—Consolidated Policies, endows the USR with an unsurprisingly quantitative structure. The top priority for Army leadership is readiness. Maybe some units aren’t aware of the regulation because weapons aren’t being transported the right way. In it, Scott relays among many examples the challenge Napoleonic France faced as it sought to standardize myriad local measurement codes: “Either the state risked making large and potentially damaging miscalculations about local conditions, or it relied heavily on the advice of local trackers—the nobles and clergy in the Crown’s confidence—who, in turn, were not slow to take full advantage of their power.”23 Scott notes attempts to strike the balance, such as those by Deputé Claude-Joseph Lalouette, failed to win requisite support for fear of too empowering the landowners.24 This concern does not apply to the question of readiness reform, for instead of thousands of landowners with ulterior motives, the Army needs to only solicit input of several dozen BCTs supportive of its mission. 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